modifying templates

I apologize if this information is already available, but I can’t find it. I am using EndNote x5 (Mac) and need to modify some bibliography template items (output styles). I need more information on how to use “forced separation” and “link adjacent” elements. For example, some of my references have editors, some don’t. When an editor is present, the editor’s name needs to be preceded by “edited by” and I can make this work fine. But when there is no editor, my exported reference still says “edited by.”  I’ve tried to analyze templates from other styles, but I’d love to have some documentation on how to construct a template properly. 


One useful word document on “Creating Endnote Styles”  is here on the University of Indiana’s website.  (start on page 9).  

Also I found this one from University of Toledo has these well phrased rule of the purpose of each of the template specific special characters  – I even learned that I probably wasn’t using the force separation correctly.  

Some rules for working with templates:

Basic dependence : any text or punctuation not separated by an ordinary space is dependent on the adjacent field. This means that the text/punctuation will only display when there is data in the field. In the example above, the parentheses around the issue number will only be displayed when there is an issue number to display.  If two fields are adjacent to text or punctuation, the preceding field takes precedence.

Spaces:  The first space following a field is dependent on that field. Additional spaces are independent.

Independent text:  Independent text (text not from a field) always appears in the bibliography.

Font formatting:  To format a field, such as journal or book titles, simply highlight the field and select  Style  from the  Text  menu. Options are underline ,  italics ,  boldface.

Special characters:  All of these special characters can be added by using the  Insert Field  button.

Non-breaking space  (gray diamond) – The EndNote manual refers to the non-breaking space as “bibliographic formatting glue,” meaning that it joins two or more items together so they act as a single unit. Any text or punctuation “glued” to a field will not be displayed if the field is empty. In a formatted bibliography, it will display as an ordinary space.

Forced separation  (vertical bar, pipe, |) – This is used to break dependence. In the example above, the forced separation after  Pages  will cause the period to be displayed whether or not there are pages in the reference.

Field names as independent text  (accent grave, ) – This is used around independent text that could be misinterpreted as a field label, such as Editor`.


Singular/plural separator  (caret, ^) – This can be used to specify singular and plural forms of independent text, such as Ed.^Eds.


This is just the kind of information I wanted. It’s interesting that these explanations were found on sites OTHER than the site, though…

Thanks again